Problem Statement

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Do you ever become frustrated with television because you keep seeing the same things, recycled over and over again? Well I personally don't care about television, but I do sometimes feel that way about numbers.

Let's say a pair of distinct positive integers (n, m) is recycled if you can obtain m by moving some digits from the back of n to the front without changing their order. For example, (12345, 34512) is a recycled pair since you can obtain 34512 by moving 345 from the end of 12345 to the front. Note that n and m must have the same number of digits in order to be a recycled pair. Neither n nor m can have leading zeros.

Given integers A and B with the same number of digits and no leading zeros, how many distinct recycled pairs (n, m) are there with A ≤ n < m ≤ B? Input ----- The first line of the input gives the number of test cases, T. T test cases follow. Each test case consists of a single line containing the integers A and B. Output ------ For each test case, output one line containing "Case #x: y", where x is the case number (starting from 1), and y is the number of recycled pairs (n, m) with A ≤ n < m ≤ B. Limits ------ 1 ≤ T ≤ 50. A and B have the same number of digits. Small dataset ------------- 1 ≤ A ≤ B ≤ 1000. Large dataset ------------- 1 ≤ A ≤ B ≤ 2000000. Sample Input ------------ 4 1 9 10 40 100 500 1111 2222 Sample Output ------------- Case #1: 0 Case #2: 3 Case #3: 156 Case #4: 287

For the above problem, a normal solution works for the small input datasets, but for larger input datasets, a bit of optimization has to be done. Below is the solution for the above problem, in Java.

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